FEMINIST FRIDAY

 

 

The New Colossus

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
“Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

Emma Lazarus (November 2, 1883)

As our country continues its acrimonious debate on immigration, I though I would talk about Emma Lazarus, a Jewish woman poet, who wrote the words that stand at the base of the symbol of freedom around the world – The Statute of Liberty.

Emma Lazarus’s famous lines captured the nation’s imagination and continues to shape the way we think about immigration and freedom today. Written in 1883, her celebrated poem, “The New Colossus,” is engraved on a plaque in the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. Over the years, the sonnet has become part of American culture, inspiring everything from an Irving Berlin show tune to a call for immigrants’ rights.

One of the first successful Jewish American authors, Lazarus was part of the late nineteenth century New York literary elite and was recognized in her day as an important American poet. In her later years, she wrote bold, powerful poetry and essays protesting the rise of antisemitism and arguing for Russian immigrants’ rights. She called on Jews to unite and create a homeland in Palestine before the title Zionist had even been coined.

As a Jewish American woman, Emma Lazarus faced the challenge of belonging to two often conflicting worlds. As a woman she dealt with unequal treatment in both. The difficult experiences lent power and depth to her work. At the same time, her complicated identity has obscured her place in American culture.

The information in this post first appeared in the Jewish Women’s Archive.

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FEMINIST FRIDAY

As I watched the news this week, it came to my attention that a movie is going to be made about The Queen of Comedy, Lucille Ball.  As a little girl I grew up watching Lucy and Ethel get into all kinds of trouble trying to live an independent life and then as a teenager and budding women’s libber, I realized that Lucy had found her way to independence by being the first woman to own a television studio.  I thought maybe we all might need a refresher on the dynamo that was Lucille Ball.

The woman who will always be remembered as the crazy, accident-prone, lovable Lucy Ricardo was born Lucille Desiree Ball on August 6, 1911 in Jamestown, New York. Her father died before she was four, and her mother worked several jobs, so she and her younger brother were raised by their grandparents. Always willing to take responsibility for her brother and young cousins, she was a restless teenager who yearned to “make some noise”. She entered a dramatic school in New York City, but while her classmate Bette Davis received all the raves, she was sent home; “too shy”. She found some work modeling for Hattie Carnegie‘s and, in 1933, she was chosen to be a “Goldwyn Girl” and appear in the film Roman Scandals (1933).

She was put under contract to RKO Radio Pictures and several small roles, including one in Top Hat (1935), followed. Eventually, she received starring roles in B-pictures and, occasionally, a good role in an A-picture, like in Stage Door (1937) or The Big Street(1942). While filming Too Many Girls (1940), she met and fell madly in love with a young Cuban actor-musician named Desi Arnaz. Despite different personalities, lifestyles, religions and ages (he was six years younger), he fell hard, too, and after a passionate romance, they eloped and were married in November 1940. Lucy soon switched to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where she got better roles in films such as Du Barry Was a Lady (1943); Best Foot Forward (1943) and the Katharine HepburnSpencer Tracy vehicle Without Love(1945). In 1948, she took a starring role in the radio comedy “My Favorite Husband”, in which she played the scatterbrained wife of a Midwestern banker. In 1950, CBS came knocking with the offer of turning it into a television series. After convincing the network brass to let Desi play her husband and to sign over the rights to and creative control over the series to them, work began on the most popular and universally beloved sitcom of all time.

With I Love Lucy (1951), she and Desi pioneered the 3-camera technique now the standard in filming sitcoms, and the concept of syndicating television programs. She was also the first woman to own her own studio as the head of Desilu Productions. Lucille Ball died at home, age 77, of an acute aortic aneurysm on April 26, 1989 in Beverly Hills, California.

LUCILLE BALL YOU ROCK!

The information in this post first appeared in the IMBd website.

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FEMINIST FRIDAY

 

As we turn the calendar to August, I know some of us are looking forward to the total solar eclipse that will occur in the United States on August 21st.  This week it was the birthday of Maria Mitchell, who against all odds became an astronomer.  This is her story:

 Maria Mitchell is the first acknowledged female astronomer.  She was born in 1818 on the island of Nantucket in Massachusetts. Although the American essayist Hannah Crocker explained that same year in her Observations on the Real Rights of Women that it was then a woman’s “province to soothe the turbulent passions of men … to shine in the domestic circle” and that “it would be improper, and physically very incorrect, for the female character to claim the statesman’s birth or ascend the rostrum to gain the loud applause of men,” Maria Mitchell’s Quaker parents believed that girls should have the same access to education and the same chance to aspire to high goals as boys, and they raised all 10 of their children as equals.

Maria’s early interest in science and the stars came from her father, a dedicated amateur astronomer who shared with all his children what he saw as physical evidence of God in the natural world, although Maria was the only child interested enough to learn the mathematics of astronomy. She would later say, in a quote recorded in NASA’s profile of her, that we should “not look at the stars as bright spots only [but] try to take in the vastness of the universe,” because “every formula which expresses a law of nature is a hymn of praise to God.”

By age 12, Maria was assisting her father with his astronomical observations and data, and just five years later opened and ran her own school for girls, training them in the sciences and math. In 1838, she became the librarian of the Nantucket Atheneum and began spending her evenings in an observatory her father had built atop the town’s bank.

On October 1, 1848, a crisp, clear autumn evening, Maria focused her father’s telescope on a distant star. The light was faint and blurry, and Maria suddenly realized she was looking not at a star, but a comet; she recorded its coordinates, and when she saw the next night that the fuzzy light had moved, she was sure. Maria shared her discovery with her father, who wrote to the Harvard Observatory, who in turn passed her name on to the king of Denmark, who had pledged a gold medal to the first person to discover a comet so distant that it could only be seen through a telescope. Maria was awarded the medal the following year, and the comet became known as “Miss Mitchell’s Comet.”

Mitchell’s list of firsts is impressive: She’d made the first American comet sighting; in 1848, she was the first woman appointed to the American Association for the Advancement of Science; in 1853, she became the first woman to earn an advanced degree; and in 1865, she became the first woman appointed to the faculty of the newly founded Vassar Female College as their astronomy professor and the head of their observatory, making her the first female astronomy professor in American history.

Mitchell also became a devoted anti-slavery activist and suffragette, with friends such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, and helped found the American Association for the Advancement of Women. In her Life, Letters, and Journals, Maria declares that, “no woman should say, ‘I am but a woman!’ But a woman! What more can you ask to be? Born a woman – born with the average brain of humanity – born with more than the average heart – if you are mortal, what higher destiny could you have? No matter where you are nor what you are, you are a power.”

MARIA MITCHELL YOU ROCK!

The information in this post first appeared in the The Writer’s Almanac.

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FEMINIST FRIDAY

Monday, May 27th Memorial Day is celebrated in the United States.  It is a day set aside to honor those who serve and protect our democracy.  Here is my contribution in honor of the very many brave women who have served or who are currently serving in the United States Army.

American Revolutionary War

(1775-1783)

The origins of service

During the Revolutionary War, women served the U.S. Army in traditional roles as nurses, seamstresses and cooks for troops in camp. Some courageous women served in combat either alongside their husbands or disguised as men, while others operated as spies for the cause. Though not in uniform, women shared Soldiers’ hardships including inadequate housing and little compensation.

The Civil War

(1861-1865)

More than 400 women disguised themselves as men and fought in the Union and Confederate armies during the Civil War.

A willingness to assume new roles

During the Civil War, women stepped into many nontraditional roles. Many women supported the war effort as nurses and aides, while others took a more upfront approach and secretly enlisted in the Army or served as spies and smugglers. Women were forced to adapt to the vast social changes affecting the nation, and their ability and willingness to assume these new roles helped shape the United States.

(1898-1901)

The creation of the Army Nurse Corps

With the Spanish-American War came an epidemic of typhoid fever and a need for highly qualified Army nurses. The surgeon general requested and promptly received congressional authority to appoint women nurses under contract, April 28, 1898. Due to the exemplary performance of these Army contract nurses, the U.S. military realized that it would be helpful to have a corps of trained nurses, familiar with military ways, on call. This led the Army to establish a permanent Nurse Corps in 1901.

World War I

(1917-1918)

More than 35,000 American women served in the military during World War I.

Their service helped propel the passage of the 19th Amendment

Upwards of 25,000 American women between the ages of 21 and 69 served overseas during World War I. They began going in August of 1914—at first singly or with a few companions, later with service organizations, and lastly at the request of the U.S. government. Although the largest number were nurses, women served in numerous other capacities – from administrators and secretaries to telephone operators and architects. Many women continued to serve long after Armistice Day, some returning home as late as 1923. Their efforts and contributions in the Great War left a lasting legacy that inspired change across the nation. The service of these women helped propel the passage of the 19th Amendment, June 4, 1919, guaranteeing women the right to vote.

Army nurses were sent to Europe to support the American Expeditionary Forces. Training with gas masks was mandatory for all women serving in France in WWI. (Photo courtesy of U.S. Army Women's Museum)

Army Nurse Corps

Army Nurse Corps

More than half of the women who served in the U.S. armed forces in World War I – roughly 21,000 – belonged to the Army Nurse Corps.

U.S. Army Signal Corps

U.S. Army Signal Corps

The U.S. Army Signal Corps recruited and trained more than 220 women – best known as the “Hello Girls” – to serve overseas as bilingual telephone operators.

Civilian Welfare Organizations

Civilian Welfare Organization

Women served in large numbers in civilian welfare organizations both at home and abroad, including the American Red Cross, YMCA, and Salvation Army.

Historical Highlights

World War II

(1939-1945)

‘To free a man to fight’

Although the idea of women in the Army other than the Army Nurse Corps was not completely abandoned following World War I, it was not until the threat of world war loomed again that renewed interest was given to this issue. With the rumblings of World War II on the horizon, Congresswoman Edith Nourse Rogers of Massachusetts states, “I was resolved that our women would not again serve with the Army without the same protection the men got.” Consequently, the creation of the Women’s Army Corps is one of the most dramatic gender-changing events in American history.

Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) were the first brave women to fly American military aircraft. They forever changed the role of women in aviation.

Women step up to perform an array of critical Army jobs, “to free a man to fight.” They work in hundreds of fields such as military intelligence, cryptography, parachute rigging, maintenance and supply, to name a few. Additionally, more than 60,000 Army Nurses serve around the world and over 1,000 women flew aircraft for the Women’s Airforce Service Pilots. Through the course of the war, 140,000 women served in the U.S. Army and the Women’s Army Corps proved itself vital to the effort. The selfless sacrifice of these brave women usher in new economic and social changes that will forever alter the role of women in American society.

A Permanent Presence

(1945-1954)

Gender and racial integration

The period immediately following World War II was one of uncertainty and constant change for the Women’s Army Corps personnel. The original intent of the WAC was to last for the duration of the war plus 6-months. However, this post-war period also marked great strides for integrating both the WAC and the Army Nurse Corps into the Regular Army.

Historical Highlights

Professional and Poised

(1955-1970)

The Women’s Army marches on

After the Korean War, and with the move of the WAC Training Center and School to Fort McClellan, Ala., the focus of the Corps shifted to the examination of management practices and the image of the WAC. The WAC directors in the 1950s and 1960s sought to expand WAC by increasing the types of jobs available in the Army, and by promoting the Corps to not only possible recruits, but also to their family members. The leadership worked hard to act as role models and to instruct the women to respect the Corps, take pride in their work, and ensure that their personal behavior and appearance was always above reproach. Their success was marked by a request from the Army chief of staff to lift the recruitment ceiling on the number of women. It was also during this era we see the removal of restrictions on promotions, assignments and utilization.

A Time of Change

(1970-1978)

Moving toward equality and the disestablishment of the WAC

The Vietnam War, the elimination of the draft, and the rise of the feminist movement had a major impact on both the Women’s Army Corps and Army Nurse Corps. There was a renewed emphasis on parity and increased opportunity for women in uniform.

A New Era

(1980s-1990s)

Providing greater opportunities for women

The disestablishment of the WAC and the integration of women into the Regular Army paved the way for women to continue breaking down gender barriers. In the ensuing years, the Army was called upon to respond to regional conflicts, natural disasters and humanitarian crises around the globe. The roles of Army Women are tested and re-defined during these contingency operations.

Post 9/11

(2001-Present)

Looking to the future

The terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 mark a pivotal changing point for Army women. As the Army’s mission changed on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan, so did the roles of women in its ranks. With the Global War on Terror campaign, there was a rapid expansion of jobs and change in roles for Army women. Beginning In 2016, women have the equal right to choose any military occupational specialty including ground combat units that were previously unauthorized.

FEMINIST FRIDAY

MOTHER’S ROCK!

I seem to be stuck on writing about mothers this month.  I started to wonder about mothers of more offbeat people and stumbled upon this list.  I love the story about poor Mrs. Capone and Minnie Schoenberg sounds like someone you would like to have a drink with and listen to her stories.  I hope you will enjoy it.

Ludwig van Beethoven

As a girl, Maria Magdalena Keverich worked as a chambermaid in the homes of the wealthy. Johann van Beethoven was her second husband. She was described as “rather tall, longish face, a nose somewhat bent, spare, earnest eyes and kind. A little colorless perhaps — raised to a passion only for the occasional quarrel with the neighbors.”

Alexander Graham Bell

Eliza Grace Symonds Bell was the daughter of a surgeon in the British Royal Navy and was a talented portrait painter. Although somewhat deaf, she played the piano well. Her deafness inspired her son’s research into hearing, although it was said she did not have a lot of faith in his work.

Dwight David Eisenhower

Though poor, Ida Stover was determined to go to college. She scraped together enough money to attend Lane College in Lecompton, Kan., where she met fellow student David Eisenhower. She was known as a firm but gentle disciplinarian and was deeply religious. It is said she once won a prize for memorizing 1,365 Bible verses. As a pacifist, she was not in favor of her son attending West Point but decided to let him go.

Henry Ford

Mary Litogot grew up on a farm, and met her future husband, William Ford, when she was 12 and he was 26 and came to work on the farm. They married nine years later. Mary was self-sufficient and a diligent worker. Henry later attributed his clean factories to her belief in cleanliness. She encouraged his interest in machines early on. He later said, “I have tried to live my life as my mother would have wished. I believe I have done, as far as I could, just what she hoped for me.”

Napoleon

Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte grew up during the Corsican struggle for independence from Genoa and imparted to her children an early interest in politics. When Napoleon was crowned emperor in 1804, she was feted everywhere as “Madame Mere.” At one time, she had three sons who were kings and one daughter as a queen, but she continued to obsess over accumulating wealth. “I may one day have to find bread for all these kings I have borne,” she said. Letizia outlived most of her famous children.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Alberta Williams King was both the daughter and the wife of Baptist preachers. She taught her children to “always remember you are as good as anyone.” Violence and tragedy became a part of her life. In 1968, Martin Luther Jr. was shot; in 1974, her son Alfred drowned; and in 1974, she herself was killed by a deranged gunman while she was playing the organ in church.

Louisa May Alcott

Abigail May became the patient and long-suffering wife of Bronson Alcott and supported him in all his radical views on education and utopian living. She served as the model for Marmee in “Little Women,” but Louisa always claimed that “Marmee, good though she was, was still not half good enough to do justice to the real woman who inspired her.”

Al Capone

When her son, Alphonse, was found guilty of tax evasion, Teresa Capone came to see him in jail with a big dish of macaroni, tomatoes and cheese. Teresa, who came from Italy as a young woman, could not speak much English, and when her son was transferred to the Atlanta Penitentiary, she could only look at him and mutter a few words; foreign languages were not permitted. She always maintained that Al was “a good boy.”

George Washington

Mary Ball Washington was a strict, authoritarian figure. George always addressed his letters to her with “Honored Madam.” When he wanted to join the British Navy, Mary refused her permission. Shortly after that, George left to live with his brother at Mount Vernon. When news came that he was elected president, he stopped on his way to the capital to give his mother the news — it was the last time he ever saw her.

The Marx Brothers

Minnie Schoenberg was the daughter of a magician and a harpist in Germany. She left that country as a teen to come to New York, where she married a somewhat successful tailor. She encouraged her sons to go into vaudeville. In 1923, although Groucho did not agree with her, she figured they were ready for Broadway — and they were. While being fitted for a dress for opening night, Minnie fell and broke her leg. She was carried to the theater on a stretcher for the opening night show.

Source: “Mothers: 100 Mothers of the Famous and Infamous,” edited by Richard Ehrlich; Paddington Press Ltd.

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The quotes in this article came from: “Mothers: 100 Mothers of the Famous and Infamous,” edited by Richard Ehrlich; Paddington Press Ltd.

FEMINIST FRIDAY

MOTHER’S ROCK!

Mother’s Day will be celebrated on May 14th in the United States.  I started to think about what some famous people had to say about their mothers.  Here are a few quotes:

  • “My mother was the most beautiful woman I ever saw. All I am I owe to my mother. I attribute all my success in life to the moral, intellectual and physical education I received from her.” – George Washington
  • “The doctors told me I would never walk again. My mother told me I would. I believed my mother.” – Wilma Rudolph
  • “My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me; and I felt I had something to live for, someone I must not disappoint.” – Thomas Alva Edison
  • When my mother took her turn to sit in a gown at her graduation, she thought she only had two career options; nursing and teaching. She raised me and my sister to believe that we could do anything, and we believed her.” — Sheryl Sandberg
  • “All that I am or ever hope to be, I owe to my angel Mother.” – Abraham Lincoln
  • A mother is the truest friend we have, when trials, heavy and sudden, fall upon us; when adversity takes the place of prosperity; when friends who rejoice with us in our sunshine, desert us when troubles thicken around us, still will she cling to us, and endeavor by her kind precepts and counsels to dissipate the clouds of darkness, and cause peace to return to our hearts.” – Washington Irving
  • “My family has very strong women. My other never laughed at my dream of Africa, even though everyone else did because we didn’t have any money, because Africa was the ‘dark continent,’ and because I was a girl.”  – Jane Goodall
  • “My mother said to me, ‘If you become a soldier you’ll be a general; if you become a monk you’ll end up as the pope.’ Instead, I became a painter and wound up as Picasso.”—Pablo Picasso
  • “My mother said I must always be intolerant of ignorance but understanding of illiteracy. That some people, unable to go to school, were more educated and more intelligent than college professors.”  – Maya Angelou
  • “It seems to me that my mother was the most splendid woman I ever knew… I have met a lot of people knocking around the world since, but I have never met a more thoroughly refined woman than my mother. If I have amounted to anything, it will be due to her.”—Charles Chaplin
  • “My mother taught me about the power of inspiration and courage, and she did it with a strength and a passion that I wish could be bottled.” – Carly Fiorina
  • “I think my mother…made it clear that you have to live life by your own terms and you have to not worry about what other people think and you have to have the courage to do the unexpected.” – Caroline Kennedy
  • Mama was my greatest teacher, a teacher of compassion, love and fearlessness. If love is sweet as a flower, then my mother is that sweet flower of love.” – Stevie Wonder

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The quotes in this article came from an article posted in Quick Base in May of 2014.

FEMINIST FRIDAY

 

Each year the month of April is set aside as National Poetry Month, a time to celebrate poets and their craft.  Of course, since this is Feminist Friday, I decided to explore women poets.  There are very many accomplished women poets to celebrate but I want to talk about Sara Teasdale today.  Sara won the first Columbia Poetry Prize in 1918 which later would be renamed the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry.  Thus making Sara the first poet, male or female, to win this prize.

 Like many women poets it seems that Sara did not live a happy life.  Sara Teasdale’s poetry was very popular during her lifetime and she received public admiration for her well-crafted lyrical poetry which centered on a woman’s changing perspectives on beauty, love, and death.  Many of Teasdale’s poems chart developments in her own life, from her experiences as a sheltered young woman in St. Louis, to those as a successful yet increasingly uneasy writer in New York City, to a depressed and disillusioned person who would commit suicide in 1933.

What follows is a poem from her Pulitzer Prize winning collection, Love Songs.

Barter

Life has loveliness to sell,
All beautiful and splendid things,
Blue waves whitened on a cliff,
Soaring fire that sways and sings,
And children’s faces looking up
Holding wonder like a cup.

Life has loveliness to sell,
Music like a curve of gold,
Scent of pine trees in the rain,
Eyes that love you, arms that hold,
And for your spirit’s still delight,
Holy thoughts that star the night.

Spend all you have for loveliness,
Buy it and never count the cost;
For one white singing hour of peace
Count many a year of strife well lost,
And for a breath of ecstasy
Give all you have been, or could be.

SARA TEASDALE YOU ROCK!

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FEMINIST FRIDAY

I happened upon this gorgeous flower the other day when out for my walk –

I did some research on the flower and found out that its name was Heavenly Blue Morning Glory and found the most interesting woman who is responsible for giving the world this beauty.  So in celebration of National Garden Month I give you the story of the remarkable Theodosia Burr Sheperd.

Theodosia Burr Shepherd (1845-1906)

Shepherd was born in the Iowa Territory and suffered many hardships, including the death of her mother when she was 3 years old.   As an adult, poverty drove her to advertise in a magazine barter column to supply California wildflower seeds and Calla lily bulbs in exchange for clothing for her daughter and household items. This business became tremendously successful. She then began supplying flower seeds and bulbs to large seed companies on the East Coast.

Soon she was making $1000/year, a sizeable sum in the 1880s, and had founded the California seed and bulb industry. Seed merchants Peter Henderson and W. Atlee Burpee visited the West Coast after receiving Shepherd’s seeds and bulbs and soon began West Coast production themselves.

Shepherd next established a retail florist business in Ventura, Calif. The business became very successful and was incorporated into a stock company, one of the first companies in the United States owned and operated by women. In addition to her seed and florist businesses, Shepherd was a successful flower breeder. She made tremendous improvements in nasturtiums, cosmos, abutilon, begonia, and petunia. Among her creations are ‘Golden West’ California poppy, ‘Oriole’ rose, and ‘Heavenly Blue’ morning glory.

THEODOSIA BURR SHEPHERD YOU ROCK!

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The above information is from an article that was written by David R. Hershey, Notable Women in the History of Horticulture

FEMINIST FRIDAY

Women in sports have long struggled for not only acceptance as equal competitors and athletes but have always been grossly underpaid.  Like their predecessor in the fight for equality, Billie Jean King, the USA Women’s Hockey team took up the fight for equal pay for equal work.  Even with the threat of the League replacing them with other players, they stayed firm in their resolve to boycott the games.  They not only won equal pay but returned to the ice and became the world champions.

 

After almost boycotting the tournament the USA Women’s Hockey team takes home the gold medal with an overtime win over Canada in the IIHF Women’s World Championship.
PLYMOUTH, Mich. — U.S. Women’s National Hockey Team coach Robb Stauber likes to tell his players “we don’t care who scores, but trust me, we remember who blocks shots.”

Stauber, a former NHL goalie, is not likely to ever forget that it was a blocked shot by Hilary Knight that led to her scoring the game-winning overtime goal in Team USA’s 3-2 win against Canada at the IIHF World Championships.

“I don’t know what a fan paid for a ticket tonight, but they should have doubled it because it was a good hockey game,” Stauber said.

After the first period, former Canadian women’s hockey star Cassie Campbell tweeted that it was the fastest women’s game she had ever seen played.
It was a memorable game because it gave Team USA its seventh gold medal in the past eight World Championships, and three in a row since Team USA lost to Canada at the 2014 Olympics in Sochi, Russia.

It was an emotional game for the American women because they had been riding a roller coaster since March 15, when they threatened to boycott the World Championships if they didn’t receive a new contract from USA Hockey that would give them the financial support they needed to stay active in the sport in non-Olympic years.

The American women didn’t even know they would be playing in the World Championships until USA Hockey officials agreed to a new deal three days before the start of the tournament.

The new financial package — paying players around $70,000 in non-Olympic years and potentially more than $100,000 in an Olympic year — was a major “win” that could change American women’s hockey for years to come, but players understood the story needed a happy ending to make it more meaningful.

 

 

Stauber thought Knight’s blocked shot was symbolic of the price the American women were willing to pay for the success. That was true on and off the ice.

 


USA WOMEN’S HOCKEY TEAM YOU ROCK!

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The above information is from an article that was written by :
Kevin Allen , USA TODAY Sports Published 1:01 a.m. ET April 8, 2017

FEMINIST FRIDAY

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I became aware on  Monday that it was the birthday of Dr. Jane Goodall famed British primatologist who revealed the previously unknown social behaviors of chimpanzees by living for years among them.  Then later in the week, I read that she was receiving the DVF Lifetime Achievement Award.  I felt this would be a good week to learn more about her.

Jane Goodall was born in London to a businessman father and novelist mother, who noted her love of animals from a very young age. One day when they could not find her, Jane’s parents frantically called the police to report their daughter missing. A few hours later, they discovered that she had been staked out in the family’s backyard chicken coop to watch a hen lay an egg.

By the time it was time to go to university, Goodall realized that she could not afford it. Instead, she worked secretary jobs, saving up for a long-awaited trip to Africa. Once there, she telephoned the famous anthropologist Louis Leakey to discuss animals. Leakey believed that studying primates would reveal important information for the field of evolution. He hired Jane as a secretary, secretly hoping that she would serve as a primate researcher in the field for him. He believed that she had the right personality to spend long periods of time alone in the wilderness. Many of his colleagues were outraged at his decision to work with a woman with no formal scientific education or college degree.

Goodall traveled to Tanzania in 1960 at just 26 years old and with only a notebook and binoculars in tow, prepared to embed herself among the wild chimpanzees of Gombe Stream National Park. She spent many months establishing herself as a nonthreatening presence, and soon worked her way up to what she called “the banana club” – a trust-building method in which she offered bananas to the chimpanzees every day. Goodall became familiar with nearly half of the reserve’s 100-plus chimps. She climbed trees with them, mimicked their behaviors, and sampled their foods.

Her participatory methods had many fellow anthropologists aghast; they disapproved of her anthropomorphic tendencies to name her subjects rather than number them, and also her choice to bait them with food. Some of the more well-known chimpanzees that she worked with were David Greybeard, the alpha male who first accepted Goodall, and Flo, a high-ranking female who gained such popularity that her eventual death warranted an obituary from the London Times.

Goodall was the first to observe that chimpanzees eat meat (previously, they had been thought to be vegetarians) and make and use their own tools. The merit of her work allowed her to become one of the only people in Cambridge University history to receive a Ph.D. without first earning a baccalaureate degree. While in school, she published her first book for a popular audience, My Friends, the Wild Chimpanzees (1970). Her Cambridge mentor at the time was so enraged that he nearly called for her expulsion, reportedly saying of the book, “It’s – it’s – it’s for the general public!” Her first major book, In the Shadow of Man, was published in 1971, and with that Goodall solidified her reputation as one of the earliest and most successful science writers.

She still works as a human and animals rights activist, traveling almost constantly in her lobbying for conservation initiatives. She says that she has not slept in the same bed for more than three consecutive weeks in over 20 years.

“Can you imagine what it’s like for me to hear, ‘Because of your last visit, we’re doing this work’?” Goodall once said. “You never know who it’s going to be, or what they’re going to do. But as long as I do it, it keeps happening. So you can see why I can’t very well stop.”

DR. JANE GOODALL YOU ROCK!

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The above information came from The Writer’s Almanac.