FEMINIST FRIDAY

I happened upon this gorgeous flower the other day when out for my walk –

I did some research on the flower and found out that its name was Heavenly Blue Morning Glory and found the most interesting woman who is responsible for giving the world this beauty.  So in celebration of National Garden Month I give you the story of the remarkable Theodosia Burr Sheperd.

Theodosia Burr Shepherd (1845-1906)

Shepherd was born in the Iowa Territory and suffered many hardships, including the death of her mother when she was 3 years old.   As an adult, poverty drove her to advertise in a magazine barter column to supply California wildflower seeds and Calla lily bulbs in exchange for clothing for her daughter and household items. This business became tremendously successful. She then began supplying flower seeds and bulbs to large seed companies on the East Coast.

Soon she was making $1000/year, a sizeable sum in the 1880s, and had founded the California seed and bulb industry. Seed merchants Peter Henderson and W. Atlee Burpee visited the West Coast after receiving Shepherd’s seeds and bulbs and soon began West Coast production themselves.

Shepherd next established a retail florist business in Ventura, Calif. The business became very successful and was incorporated into a stock company, one of the first companies in the United States owned and operated by women. In addition to her seed and florist businesses, Shepherd was a successful flower breeder. She made tremendous improvements in nasturtiums, cosmos, abutilon, begonia, and petunia. Among her creations are ‘Golden West’ California poppy, ‘Oriole’ rose, and ‘Heavenly Blue’ morning glory.

THEODOSIA BURR SHEPHERD YOU ROCK!

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The above information is from an article that was written by David R. Hershey, Notable Women in the History of Horticulture

FEMINIST FRIDAY

Women in sports have long struggled for not only acceptance as equal competitors and athletes but have always been grossly underpaid.  Like their predecessor in the fight for equality, Billie Jean King, the USA Women’s Hockey team took up the fight for equal pay for equal work.  Even with the threat of the League replacing them with other players, they stayed firm in their resolve to boycott the games.  They not only won equal pay but returned to the ice and became the world champions.

 

After almost boycotting the tournament the USA Women’s Hockey team takes home the gold medal with an overtime win over Canada in the IIHF Women’s World Championship.
PLYMOUTH, Mich. — U.S. Women’s National Hockey Team coach Robb Stauber likes to tell his players “we don’t care who scores, but trust me, we remember who blocks shots.”

Stauber, a former NHL goalie, is not likely to ever forget that it was a blocked shot by Hilary Knight that led to her scoring the game-winning overtime goal in Team USA’s 3-2 win against Canada at the IIHF World Championships.

“I don’t know what a fan paid for a ticket tonight, but they should have doubled it because it was a good hockey game,” Stauber said.

After the first period, former Canadian women’s hockey star Cassie Campbell tweeted that it was the fastest women’s game she had ever seen played.
It was a memorable game because it gave Team USA its seventh gold medal in the past eight World Championships, and three in a row since Team USA lost to Canada at the 2014 Olympics in Sochi, Russia.

It was an emotional game for the American women because they had been riding a roller coaster since March 15, when they threatened to boycott the World Championships if they didn’t receive a new contract from USA Hockey that would give them the financial support they needed to stay active in the sport in non-Olympic years.

The American women didn’t even know they would be playing in the World Championships until USA Hockey officials agreed to a new deal three days before the start of the tournament.

The new financial package — paying players around $70,000 in non-Olympic years and potentially more than $100,000 in an Olympic year — was a major “win” that could change American women’s hockey for years to come, but players understood the story needed a happy ending to make it more meaningful.

 

 

Stauber thought Knight’s blocked shot was symbolic of the price the American women were willing to pay for the success. That was true on and off the ice.

 


USA WOMEN’S HOCKEY TEAM YOU ROCK!

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The above information is from an article that was written by :
Kevin Allen , USA TODAY Sports Published 1:01 a.m. ET April 8, 2017

FEMINIST FRIDAY

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I became aware on  Monday that it was the birthday of Dr. Jane Goodall famed British primatologist who revealed the previously unknown social behaviors of chimpanzees by living for years among them.  Then later in the week, I read that she was receiving the DVF Lifetime Achievement Award.  I felt this would be a good week to learn more about her.

Jane Goodall was born in London to a businessman father and novelist mother, who noted her love of animals from a very young age. One day when they could not find her, Jane’s parents frantically called the police to report their daughter missing. A few hours later, they discovered that she had been staked out in the family’s backyard chicken coop to watch a hen lay an egg.

By the time it was time to go to university, Goodall realized that she could not afford it. Instead, she worked secretary jobs, saving up for a long-awaited trip to Africa. Once there, she telephoned the famous anthropologist Louis Leakey to discuss animals. Leakey believed that studying primates would reveal important information for the field of evolution. He hired Jane as a secretary, secretly hoping that she would serve as a primate researcher in the field for him. He believed that she had the right personality to spend long periods of time alone in the wilderness. Many of his colleagues were outraged at his decision to work with a woman with no formal scientific education or college degree.

Goodall traveled to Tanzania in 1960 at just 26 years old and with only a notebook and binoculars in tow, prepared to embed herself among the wild chimpanzees of Gombe Stream National Park. She spent many months establishing herself as a nonthreatening presence, and soon worked her way up to what she called “the banana club” – a trust-building method in which she offered bananas to the chimpanzees every day. Goodall became familiar with nearly half of the reserve’s 100-plus chimps. She climbed trees with them, mimicked their behaviors, and sampled their foods.

Her participatory methods had many fellow anthropologists aghast; they disapproved of her anthropomorphic tendencies to name her subjects rather than number them, and also her choice to bait them with food. Some of the more well-known chimpanzees that she worked with were David Greybeard, the alpha male who first accepted Goodall, and Flo, a high-ranking female who gained such popularity that her eventual death warranted an obituary from the London Times.

Goodall was the first to observe that chimpanzees eat meat (previously, they had been thought to be vegetarians) and make and use their own tools. The merit of her work allowed her to become one of the only people in Cambridge University history to receive a Ph.D. without first earning a baccalaureate degree. While in school, she published her first book for a popular audience, My Friends, the Wild Chimpanzees (1970). Her Cambridge mentor at the time was so enraged that he nearly called for her expulsion, reportedly saying of the book, “It’s – it’s – it’s for the general public!” Her first major book, In the Shadow of Man, was published in 1971, and with that Goodall solidified her reputation as one of the earliest and most successful science writers.

She still works as a human and animals rights activist, traveling almost constantly in her lobbying for conservation initiatives. She says that she has not slept in the same bed for more than three consecutive weeks in over 20 years.

“Can you imagine what it’s like for me to hear, ‘Because of your last visit, we’re doing this work’?” Goodall once said. “You never know who it’s going to be, or what they’re going to do. But as long as I do it, it keeps happening. So you can see why I can’t very well stop.”

DR. JANE GOODALL YOU ROCK!

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The above information came from The Writer’s Almanac.

FEMINIST FRIDAY

What do you call a woman who is the first African woman to win the New York Marathon only five years after getting her first pair of sneakers?  You call her Chametia (one who never gets annyoyed) or Tegla Loroupe.  Here is her medal-worthy story.

From running star to champion for peace, the story of Tegla Loroupe

By Paul Osborne
Tegla Loroupe is a real life role model. From her exploits on the road to her incredible humanitarian work off it, the Kenyan is a true ambassador to her country, her sport and mankind as a whole.

Born in Kapsait village, the Lelan division of West Pokot District, Kenya, Loroupe grew up with 24 siblings. She spent her childhood working fields, tending cattle and looking after younger brothers and sisters.

It was at the age of seven, when Loroupe began attending school, that her running prowess became immediately apparent. Attending school meant a 10 kilometres run for the young Kenyan, both there and back – a run she would complete barefoot.

Talking to me in Qatar, a world away from these early beginnings, Loroupe admitted that she made the “school run”, in the rawest form of the phrase, without the knowledge that she was “doing the sport”. Without the facilities seen in the western world, a youngster in Kenya could run or play football, although the latter was traditionally for the boys.

It wasn’t until the intra-school competitions that Loroupe became aware of her true potential.

Held over the 800 metres and 1500m distance, and taking place on a Friday, students from each school class would compete against one another.

Loroupe’s class was good. Loroupe was one of the best. Even when competing against older students, a young Loroupe proved a true talent. Unfortunately for her, she received little support from her community. As a woman, and a relatively small, frail woman at that, she was not deemed suitable to be a runner.

Always a struggler, Loropue struggled on, however; determined to pursue a career in athletics.

“I went through hardship from the community and I was thinking now is my chance to move from the community to the national way, by way of our National Federation,” she said. “They understand more about sport. I was not able to complain in my community because for girls it was a risk.”

“For me I say, ‘I have something special in me and I will pursue sports like the men from the other community. You don’t show fear in the eyes of the enemy, so you have to struggle. So that’s how I struggle to show them I’m not a quitter. I’m little in body but I can fight. So that’s how my struggle started.”


Despite her tough upbringing, Loroupe explains that she is not ashamed of her community
Despite the hardship in her past, Loroupe is not one to point fingers. She tells me that she is not ashamed of the community she grew up in, that sometimes the media can portray it in a way that does not come across well in society. Some may comment about her younger years, place blame where they feel it necessary; but not Loroupe. She never pointed a finger at anybody.

It didn’t take long for Loroupe to show Kenya and the rest of the world that she was a talent to be watched.

After winning a prestigious local race in 1988, barefoot at that, she fell under the spotlight of the Kenyan athletics federation, Athletics Kenya.

She earned her first pair of running shoes the following year as her international career gained a head of speed. Her first major competition also came in 1989 where she was nominated to race in the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Cross Country Championships. She came 29th, earning global recognition.

In 1990 she competed again at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, finishing 16th in the junior race.

From here, Loroupe’s international career took flight. In 1994 she won the Goodwill Games over 10,000 metres, barefoot. She also took part in her first major marathon – the New York City Marathon. Running against the world’s strongest competition, Loroupe won, becoming the first woman from Africa to win in New York City.


Kenya’s Tegla Loroupe won the New York City Marathon in 1994 – the first African women to win the event, launching her on the world stage.

“I think it gave women all over the world pride,” Loroupe explained of the victory in New York. “When I won there so many women that say, ‘Tegla we know you are struggle, we translate in real life in our women’.

“So it opened the thinking of women all over the world. Women also, we have hard life. So we can struggle in any area we are facing to make a difference in our lives.

“After New York lots of people followed me, I was the only one that was pushing the wall alone. I’m happy to be a role model for them. Even when I was crying to our federations that they were leaving me behind, I can say that my tears were not for nothing.”

She won the New York City Marathon again in 1995 and finished third in 1998.

Loroupe’s accomplishments in the mid to late 1990s and early 2000s are extensive.

As well as winning bronze medals at the IAAF World Championships in 1995 and 1999 over 10,000m, Loroupe also secured world gold three times in a row over the half-marathon distance, between 1997 and 1999. She also took the top prize at the Rotterdam Marathon in the same years, the Berlin Marathon in 1999 and finished second in 2001; and finished second at the 1999 Osaka Marathon.

During the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Loroupe was favourite to win gold in the marathon and 10,000m, but suffered from food poisioning the night before the opening race.

Nevertheless, the Kenyan took to the starting line in each races, finishing 13th in the marathon and fifth in the 10,000m the following day. She was barefoot on each occasion.


Tegla Loroupe was favourite to take gold in the marathon at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, however, food poisoning kept her up the night before the race leaving her to battle for 13th ©Getty Images

Her success continued into 2000 with victory at the London Marathon and Rome City Marathon. She also won the Lausanne Marathon in 2002, Cologne Marathon in 2003 and Leipzig Marathon in 2004.

Loroupe competed at the 2005 World Championships marathon race in Helsinki, Finland, but finished only 40th.

She saw major improvement at the Hong Kong Hal-Marathon in February 2006 where she took gold. The same year she finished fifth in the Rotterdam Marathon and second in the Venice Marathon. In 2007 she participated again the New York City Marathon, finishing eighth.

Her legacy still remains in much of the the athletics world where she holds the world records over 20, 25 and 30 kilometres as well as the marathon distance.

Her marathon time of 2 hours 20min 43sec, set at the Berlin Marathon in 1999, was broken two years later, almost to the day, when Japan’s Naoko Takahashi ran the Berlin Marathon in 2:19:46.

She also used to hold the one hour running world record of 18,340m set in Borgholzhausen, Germany, but the record was broken by Dire Tune of Ethiopia ten years later, in 2008.

Aside from her running career, Loroupe has given a lot back to her community through a series of humanitarian efforts.

As the most successful female athlete to arise from a conflict-struck area in Kenya, Loroupe was often called upon in times of crisis.

“I realised that when I was in Europe, most of the time they were looking when there is a crisis they used to look for names and every time my name would always appear,” she explained. “These organisations, they also keep my card and I never ask anything. If I had a number I could have given [it to them], but I can raise more money with my name running with it.

“So I realise I have something special that people want to get from me, so I had to translate that back to my community and interfere and ask the Government, ‘let’s work there’.”


In 2003 the Tegla Loroupe Peace Foundation was established in an effort to bring peace and harmony to communities in Kenya, Uganda and Sudan ©Facebook

In this vein, she established the Tegla Loroupe Peace Foundation in 2003.

The Foundation’s mission is “to improve peace building, livelihoods and resilience of poor people affected by and vulnerable to conflicts and civil strife in the world”.

It was created in an effort to bring together warring tribes and religions within Kenyan and Ugandan communities and make a difference to the lives of those people that are suffering, just as Loroupe once did.

“Well I started in 2003 using the religious groups who had been hurt by the people fighting,” she said.

“Because they don’t want to see police, they don’t want to see politician. But with this they really know that Tegla was behind it, so they say ‘okay, there is need for them to support the initiative’.

“So they came to run, and why? Because they say, ‘Tegla could have stayed in Europe with any other person.’ I had everything that could have taken me away from home, but I came back to see them.

“They need Government or anybody to listen to their issues.

“Because people don’t just fight because they don’t like each other, it’s just a stereotype where people say ‘oh they are raiding because they want to marry or whatever’ – it’s a lack of resources.

“People are fighting because they cannot access education, so they have nothing of use to put their energy towards, and because they have to survive.”

The Tegla Loroupe Peace Foundation brought instant tangible results to the communities it targeted.

At a 2003 event the President of Uganda Yoweri Museveni sent one of his Minister of States to participate. This, according to Loroupe, had never happened before. She then visited the Ugandan Parliament to talk with the policy makers there, hoping to open the boarders between the two nations and create harmony where it had previously not existed.

This was a key theme to Loroupe’s work through her Foundation; to bring peace and harmony to communities and cross-border territories.


As part of the Tegla Loroupe Peace Foundation’s mission, Peace Runs were established to bring warring tribes together ©Facebook

With the creation of the Foundation, came the creation of an annual series of Peace Marathons, named “Peace Through Sports”.

These races saw Prime Ministers, Presidents, Government officials and ambassadors run with warriors from battling tribes in an effort to bring these communities together, open conversation and put an end to conflict.

Loroupe’s humanitarian work was recognised globally in February 2007 when she was named the Oxfam Ambassador of Sport and Peace to Darfur. This came just months after she travelled with George Clooney, Joey Cheek, and Don Cheadle to Beijing, Cairo, and New York City on a diplomatic mission to bring an end to violence in Darfur.

She won the “Community Hero” category at the 2007 Kenyan Sports Personality of the Year awards.

On Olympic day in 2011, Loroupe was presented with the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) Women and Sport Awards in recognition of her hugely successful career humanitarian work across Africa.

One huge benefit of Loroupe’s work is the fact that she has been there. She has faced the issues that those she is helping are going through. She can relate to and advice these people, with knowledge that many other foundations do not possess.

“When I get on the ground, I’m not afraid to go to the people. I’m not ashamed. I’m able to tell them that I was like you, that can you can never give up. I can talk to the small kids, I can talk to the leaders.

“When people come to Africa, they use all this type of funding and say, ‘Oh sports can change, we are doing this and this in this type of country or whatever’, not knowing why that person is fighting; why that person is committing crime.”

Loroupe admitted that she would like to see more sporting idols, born and raised in Africa, return to the continent to lend their support to the communities they drew up in.

As Africa has progressed as a sporting region, as athletes from the continent continue to make a name for themselves, she would like to see them empower the people and remember their roots.

“We have our heroes, who forget home,” she said.”And they say, ‘Ah I don’t want to go home because I feel threatened or whatever.’

“But yesterday you were poor, and today you are rich. What makes you forget where you come from?

“Go and empower the people over there, be the person of the people.”

Empowering the people does not just consist of food, water, or funding. Of course these are essential, but education is also a major resource that is lacking in many communities.

Not only is this education essential to their upbringing, but also to any ambitions of becoming athletes.

An estimated 36 Kenyan athletes have failed doping tests over the past two years.

The latest case involving two-time Boston Marathon winner Rita Jeptoo, sent a wave of panic through Kenyan sports.

But with so many athletes testing positive for banned substances; who is to blame?

The answer, according to Loroupe, is foreign coaches. Coaches or managers from the Western world who see young, often naïve, Kenyan athletes as a source of income.

They see a nation full of natural runners and want to make a quick buck.

“It’s a shame for the country,” Loroupe explained. “And also for our athlete who are naïve. They don’t know much about the issue of drugs. You people from the Western world you know, and the small kids know what’s going on. Some of us don’t know anything about it. Our kids have been subjected to it, and why?

“Because of foreigners, they see the athletes from Kenya as a source of income and therefore they can do anything.”

“We need to cut the roots. Athletes should not be subjected alone. They shouldn’t follow these managers because they will go and destroy any athlete. Be it European American or Africa, these criminals are still moving free. And sports should be free. We have to fight with our own strength.”

One thing that would certainly help these athletes who are being used and taking is education. Teaching them what is right and what is not when it comes to taking certain substances. Teaching them to query what is being put into their bodies, and ensuring they are safe and secure in both training and competition.

This is not just a job for Africa, however. This is not just a job for organisations such as the Tegla Loroupe Foundation. This is a mission for everybody. Athletes, coaches and role models from all regions of sport need to come together to put an end to the criminal behaviour and ensure a free upbringing to athletes from all areas of the world.

That is Loroupe’s aim.

As a member of the “Champions for Peace” club, a group of 54 famous elite athletes committed to serving peace in the world through sport, created by Peace and Sport, a Monaco-based international organisation, the Kenyan wants to bring peace to her community, her continent and her planet.

TEGLA LOROUPE YOU ROCK!

 

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The above information is from an article that was written by Paul Osbourne who is a reporter for insidethegames.

FEMINIST FRIDAY

I will never forget in 1973 the Battle of the Sexes.  Bobby Riggs was all over the media boasting that women tennis players were inferior to male tennis players.  Billie Jean King took up his challenge and broke that glass ceiling at the Houston Astrodome on September 20, 1973.  Here is her story.

International tennis star Billie Jean King won a record twenty Wimbledon championships and helped win equal treatment for women in sports.
Billie Jean (Moffitt) King was born on November 22, 1943, in the southern California city of Long Beach. She was the first of Willard and Betty Moffitt’s two children. Her father was an engineer for the fire department, and her mother was a receptionist at a medical center. Both she and her brother, Randy, who would become a professional baseball player, excelled in athletics as children and were encouraged by their parents. At fire department picnics, her father’s coworkers always wanted Billie Jean to play on their softball team.

Billie Jean developed an interest in tennis at age eleven and saved money to buy her first racket. When she was fourteen years old she won her first championship in a southern California tournament. She began receiving coaching at age fifteen from Alice Marble, a famous player from the 1930s. The product of a working-class family, Billie Jean soon found herself caught up in a country club sport. Despite her success on the court, the fact that tennis was mainly geared toward men would prove a personal challenge to her in later years.
In 1961 Billie Jean competed in her first Wimbledon tournament in England. Although she was defeated in the women’s singles, she teamed with Karen Hautze to win the doubles (two-person team) title. She married attorney Larry King in 1965. In 1966 she won her first Wimbledon singles championship and repeated in 1967. That same year she also won the U.S. Open singles title at Forest Hills, New York.

In 1968 King won both the women’s singles and doubles titles at Wimbledon. In 1971 she became the first woman athlete to win more than one hundred thousand dollars in a single year.
It was 1972, however, that would be King’s banner year. She won the women’s singles title at Wimbledon, the U.S. Open, and the French Open. (These three tournaments plus the Australian Open now make up the “Grand Slam” of tennis.) For this feat, Sports Illustrated magazine named her “Sportswoman of the Year,” and Sports magazine deemed her “Tennis Player of the Year.”
In 1973 King again won Wimbledon’s singles and doubles championships. It was then that she began to openly criticize the low prize money offered to women competitors. She noted that women were receiving far less than men for what she considered equal ability and effort. Her statements on this issue led to the offer from a major U.S. drug manufacturer of a large sum of money to make the prize money at the U.S. Open equal for both men and women.

A victory for women’s liberation
King’s career coincided with the women’s liberation (feminist) movement of the 1970s. Her working-class upbringing in southern California and the second-class treatment she received as a professional athlete made her a natural spokesperson for the movement. Her role as a leader in the feminist cause reached its peak in September 1973, when she faced the 1939 men’s tennis champion Bobby Riggs (1918–1995) in a nationally televised match at the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. King easily beat the aging Riggs and emerged as the winner of what had been billed as the “Battle of the Sexes.”

In 1975 King won her sixth Wimbledon singles championship, but she announced that she would no longer compete in major events because of injuries to her knees. In all she won a record twenty Wimbledon championships (including singles, doubles, and mixed doubles). Today, women competing in professional athletic contests owe much to Billie Jean King. With her outstanding play and forceful attitude, she earned them the right to compete for the same money as men.

Later years
King helped to found the Women’s Tennis Association and served as its president from 1973 to 1975 and again from 1980 to 1981. After retiring from professional tennis in 1984, King and her husband have promoted coed (open to both men and women) team tennis. King has also been active in charitable events. In 1995 she joined the Virginia Slims legends tour along with Chris Evert (1954–) and Martina Navratilova (1956–) to raise money for the fight against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS; a disease that destroys the body’s ability to fight off infection). King is also an investor in Discovery Zone, a chain of children’s “play lands” that promotes the equal athletic abilities of boys and girls.

King continues to be associated with the sport as a broadcaster, teacher, and coach. In 1999 and 2000 she coached the U.S. women’s team, whose members included Venus Williams, Serena Williams, Lindsay Davenport, and Jennifer Capriati, to victories in the international Federation Cup tournament.

 

BILLIE JEAN KING YOU ROCK!

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The above information came from

Encyclopedia of World Biography

World Biography Jo-Ki Billie Jean King Biography
Billie Jean King Biography

FEMINIST FRIDAY

Since March 8th was International Woman’s Day, I dedicate this edition of Feminist Friday to the women everywhere in the globe who are still striving for equality.

During World War 2 women were encouraged to go into the work force to replace the men who were fighting the war.  There intellectual skills were acknowledged and women were invited to bring these skills into all sectors of the war effort.

After the war women were essentially told to go home and make room for jobs for the men returning from the war.  If you were lucky enough to get a college degree, a woman still worked as a secretary and basically was told that college and working were just ways of marking time until they got married.

Betty Friedan, the Mother of Feminism, graduated from Smith College during this period of time.  Despite a keen intelligence and a desire for a career, she ended up a frustrated housewife in the suburbs.  Her frustration was not at being a housewife (a horrible term) but at the lack of choice.

Betty wrote a book called the Feminine Mystique and helped spark the second wave of the feminist revolution in our country.  And, as they say, the rest is history.

I was going to write a straightforward biography of Betty and then came across this article from the New York Times that addressed the complexity of wanting a career and wanting to be a good mother.  I hope you find it interesting.

THE MOTHER OF FEMINISM

Jonathan Friedan, Betty Friedan’s middle child (and my third cousin), spent much of August 1970 fighting forest fires in Washington State. When his backpack was stolen, the 17-year-old hitchhiked back to New York City. His mother divorced the year before and moved to an apartment on West 93rd Street. Jonathan happened to come home while she was in the final stage of planning a march down Fifth Avenue. “I had no idea what was going on,” he told me recently.

The previous spring, Friedan decided she wanted to mark Aug. 26, 1970, the 50th anniversary of the constitutional ratification of women’s right to vote, with a major event to show that the promise of equality had not been achieved. She floated the idea at the fourth annual meeting of the National Organization for Women, which she had helped found. Her audience cringed, fearful of a flop.

Friedan was determined to come up with a plan that would prove the doubters wrong. It wasn’t easy. In June, about 30 women showed up for the first strategy session for what they called the Women’s Strike for Equality. (To boost participation, the “strike” would take place at the end of the working day.) The planners sat in a circle, and the meeting was conducted without a leader — in other words, chaotically. Throughout the summer, factions sniped. “A younger band of radicals,” The New York Times Magazine reported three days before the event, “found Miss Friedan’s way of doing things ‘hopelessly bourgeois.’ And Miss Friedan’s older, more conservative faction countered by calling the younger women ‘crazies.’ ” Natalie Gittelson Lachman, a writer and Friedan’s close friend for more than 40 years, recalls “how afraid Betty was that the whole thing would fizzle.” But Friedan worked relentlessly to prevent that from happening.

A day or two before the strike, family friends of the Friedans arrived from out of town for a visit to New York. Jonathan’s mother hadn’t asked him to go to the march. But the friends wanted him to take them. He agreed out of pity. “I’d seen the Charlie Chaplin movie where he marches down the street waving a flag with no one marching after him. I thought at least there’d be four of us,” he says.

 

But once Jonathan got to Fifth Avenue, he couldn’t get anywhere near his mother. The street was teeming with people. When the march ended at Bryant Park, Jonathan climbed up on a wall so he could glimpse Friedan standing on a podium. She spoke to an audience in the tens of thousands. “This was the moment I realized who she was,” he says.

The Women’s Strike for Equality “made the women’s movement a household word,” says Ruth Rosen, the author of “The World Split Open: How the Modern Women’s Movement Changed America.” It was the first feminist event to make the TV news and the front pages. President Richard Nixon issued a proclamation commemorating the anniversary of women’s suffrage. Gov. Nelson Rockefeller declared Aug. 26 a holiday. “It totally eclipsed Betty’s expectations,” Lachman remembers. And Jonathan’s. How many 17-year-old boys get to see their mothers make history with thousands of people marching behind them?
In the end, Friedan pulled off a remarkable show of unity. An array of liberal and radical women’s groups signed on to a pragmatic agenda: equal opportunity in work and education, a right to medical help with abortion and free 24-hour-a-day child care. Those goals were ambitious then; they still are today. And aspects of the day’s theater — like planned “tot-ins” at which mothers would plop their babies in the laps of employers and politicians — seem bold as well as quaint.

But it would be a whitewash to stop there, and Betty, whom I spent time with as I grew up, was never one to whitewash. Betty’s older son, Daniel, a physicist, missed the march, probably because he was in Europe. And her daughter, Emily, then 14, missed it because she was angry with Betty. “It wasn’t her fame I resented,” says Emily, who is a pediatrician. “It was her, as a mother. I regret that I didn’t go. I probably regretted it then. But I wasn’t going to do anything with her.”

In her eulogy for her mother, Emily said: “Betty referred to us as her undeserved bonus. She marveled in the three of us and her grandchildren, stunned that in her blundering, she had actually pulled it off.” About the time of the strike, Emily reflects, “the same phenomenal strident energy and drive and perhaps lack of grace that made her able to do what she did maybe weren’t adapted well to mothering adolescents, especially through a divorce.”

What does it mean that the mother of feminism was for a time not necessarily a good mother to all of her children? Lachman says she thinks that anyone in her friend’s dual roles would have strained to fill them at that heady and inchoate moment. Maybe she’s right. And maybe if Betty had been the male leader of a social movement, the question would go unprobed. But shouldn’t we ask it of all parents? I think Betty would answer yes.

BETTY FRIEDAN YOU ROCK!

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The above information is from an article in the New York Times Magazine, The Mother of Feminism
By EMILY BAZELONDEC. 31, 2006

FEMINIST FRIDAY

Since I needed a “touch up” and a haircut this past week, my curiosity turned to the women involved in making us look beautiful and found Madam C. J. Walker,  who took an idea for hair care products and lifted herself from poverty to become the first woman millionaire.

Madam C.J. Walker Biography

Madam C.J. Walker, born Sarah Breedlove, created specialized hair products for African-American hair and was one of the first American women to become a self-made millionaire.

Early Life
Madam C.J. Walker was born Sarah Breedlove on December 23, 1867, on a cotton plantation near Delta, Louisiana. Her parents, Owen and Minerva, were recently freed slaves, and Sarah, who was their fifth child, was the first in her family to be free-born. Minerva Breedlove died in 1874 and Owen passed away the following year, both due to unknown causes, and Sarah became an orphan at the age of 7. After her parents’ passing, Sarah was sent to live with her sister, Louvinia, and her brother-in-law. The three moved to Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1877, where Sarah picked cotton and was likely employed doing household work, although no documentation exists verifying her employment at the time.

At age 14, to escape both her oppressive working environment and the frequent mistreatment she endured at the hands of her brother-in-law, Sarah married a man named Moses McWilliams. On June 6, 1885, Sarah gave birth to a daughter, A’Lelia. When Moses died two years later, Sarah and A’Lelia moved to St. Louis, where Sarah’s brothers had established themselves as barbers. There, Sarah found work as a washerwoman, earning $1.50 a day—enough to send her daughter to the city’s public schools. She also attended public night school whenever she could. While in St. Louis, Breedlove met her second husband Charles J. Walker, who worked in advertising and would later help promote her hair care business.

Early Entrepreneurship
During the 1890s, Sarah Breedlove developed a scalp disorder that caused her to lose much of her hair, and she began to experiment with both home remedies and store-bought hair care treatments in an attempt to improve her condition. In 1905, Breedlove was hired as a commission agent by Annie Turnbo Malone—a successful, black, hair care product entrepreneur—and she moved to Denver, Colorado. While there, Breedlove’s husband Charles helped her create advertisements for a hair care treatment for African Americans that she was perfecting. Her husband also encouraged her to use the more recognizable name “Madam C.J. Walker,” by which she was thereafter known.
In 1907, Walker and her husband traveled around the South and Southeast promoting her products and giving lecture demonstrations of her “Walker Method”—involving her own formula for pomade, brushing and the use of heated combs.

Success and Philanthropy
As profits continued to grow, in 1908 Walker opened a factory and a beauty school in Pittsburgh, and by 1910, when Walker transferred her business operations to Indianapolis, the Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company had become wildly successful, with profits that were the modern-day equivalent of several million dollars. In Indianapolis, the company not only manufactured cosmetics, but trained sales beauticians. These “Walker Agents” became well known throughout the black communities of the United States. In turn, they promoted Walker’s philosophy of “cleanliness and loveliness” as a means of advancing the status of African-Americans. An innovator, Walker organized clubs and conventions for her representatives, which recognized not only successful sales, but also philanthropic and educational efforts among African-Americans.
In 1913, Walker and Charles divorced, and she traveled throughout Latin America and the Caribbean promoting her business and recruiting others to teach her hair care methods. While her mother traveled, A’Lelia Walker helped facilitate the purchase of property in Harlem, New York, recognizing that the area would be an important base for future business operations. In 1916, upon returning from her travels, Walker moved to her new townhouse in Harlem. From there, she would continue to operate her business, while leaving the day-to-day operations of her factory in Indianapolis to its forelady.
Walker quickly immersed herself in Harlem’s social and political culture. She founded philanthropies that included educational scholarships and donations to homes for the elderly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the National Conference on Lynching, among other organizations focused on improving the lives of African-Americans. She also donated the largest amount of money by an African-American toward the construction of an Indianapolis YMCA in 1913.

Death and Legacy
Madam C.J. Walker died of hypertension on May 25, 1919, at age 51, at the estate home she had built for herself in Irvington-on-Hudson, New York. At the time of her death, Walker was sole owner of her business, which was valued at more than $1 million. Her personal fortune was estimated at between $600,000 and $700,000. Today, Walker is widely credited as one of the first American women to become a self-made millionaire.
Walker left one-third of her estate to her daughter, A’Lelia Walker—who would also become well-known as an important part of the cultural Harlem Renaissance—and the remainder to various charities. Walker’s funeral took place at her home, Villa Lewaro, in Irvington-on-Hudson, which was designated a National Historic Landmark, and she was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx, New York.
In 1927, the Walker Building, an arts center that Walker had begun work on before her death, was opened in Indianapolis. An important African-American cultural center for decades, it is now a registered National Historic Landmark. In 1998, the United States Postal Service issued a stamp of Madam C.J. Walker as part of its “Black Heritage” series.

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SARAH BREEDLOVE YOU ROCK!

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The above information is from an article that was posted at THE BIOGRAPHY CHANNEL.

FEMINIST FRIDAY

 

Last week found me baking a batch of Toll House Cookies for my grandchildren.  The iconic chocolate chip cookie is probably one of the most loved cookies in the United States.  I decided to find out the story behind the cookie and found Ruth Wakefield.

Ruth Wakefield bought an old Toll House in Whitman, Massachusetts and converted it into a restaurant.  In 1930 Ruth was baking a batch of chocolate-butter drop cookies which was a popular dessert at that time.  In order to save time Ruth added chunks of chocolate to the recipe instead of melting the chocolate on the stove top.  A simple mistake led to the iconic cookie.

Ruth Wakefield
Chocolate Chip Cookie Inventor

Chocolate chip cookies are a favorite treat for people of all ages, but without the famous woman inventor Ruth Wakefield, the world might never have tasted those sweet delights. Born in 1905, Wakefield grew up to be a dietician and food lecturer after graduating from the Framingham State Normal School Department of Household Arts in 1924. Along with her husband Kenneth, she bought a tourist lodge named the Toll House Inn, where she prepared the recipes for meals that were served to guests.
In 1930, Wakefield was mixing a batch of cookies for her roadside inn guests when she discovered that she was out of baker’s chocolate. She substituted broken pieces of Nestle’s semi-sweet chocolate, expecting it to melt and absorb into the dough to create chocolate cookies. That didn’t happen, but the surprising result helped to make Ruth Wakefield one of the 20th century’s most famous women inventors. When she removed the pan from the oven, Wakefield realized that she had accidentally invented “chocolate chip cookies.”
At the time, she called her creations “Toll House Crunch Cookies.” They became extremely popular locally, and the recipe was soon published in a Boston newspaper. As the popularity of the Toll House Crunch Cookie increased, the sales of Nestle’s semi-sweet chocolate bars also spiked. Andrew Nestle and Ruth Wakefield decided to come up with an agreement. Nestle would print the Toll House Cookie recipe on its package, and Wakefield would be given a lifetime supply of Nestle chocolate. Due to this unexpected discovery by a famous woman inventor, the chocolate chip cookie became the most popular variety of cookie in America, a distinction it still holds to this day.

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RUTH WAKEFIELD YOU ROCK!

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The above information is from Famous Women Inventors, http://www.women-inventors.com.

FEMINIST FRIDAY

 

hans-brinker-or-the-silver-skates-by-mary-mapes-dodge

It has always fascinated me that when a book or a song are so perfectly created that you think the song or the tale surely must have originated from the country written about.  One example of this is Edelweiss by Oscar Hammerstein and another is Hans Brinker.  Here is the story of the woman who wrote Hans Brinker and The Silver Skates.

 Mary Mapes was born in New York City in 1831 into a prestigious New York family. Her father was an inventor and an entrepreneur who planned to revolutionize the farming industry with new chemical fertilizers. One of the investors in his fertilizer idea was a man named William Dodge, who later married young Mary Mapes.
Mary Mapes Dodge lived with her husband in New York City for five years, and had two sons. Then one night in 1858, her husband left the house and never came back. It turned out that he had drowned – possibly a suicide. She was devastated and took her sons to live on her father’s farm. She moved into a room in the attic, which she decorated with moss, leaves, flowers, and a painting of the Rhine River on the ceiling. She spent many hours in the attic playing with her sons and telling them stories, and eventually she began to write down the stories and submit them to magazines.
She had long been interested in writing something about Holland, although she’d never been there. She had some Dutch friends who had emigrated from Amsterdam, and she asked them to tell her everything they knew about their home country, what things looked like and smelled like, and the things people did and the food they ate and the stories they told their children at night. She used all of these details to write a children’s book called Hans Brinker; or, The Silver Skates (1865), which became a best-seller. In the 15 years after it was published, it received more reviews than any other children’s book in America.
The historical background of Holland that Mary Mapes Dodge wrote about in Hans Brinker; or, The Silver Skates (1865) included a story about a boy who saved Holland by sticking his finger in a dike. That story was her own invention, but it became so famous that many people believed it was an old Dutch folktale.
In 1872, Charles Scribner and two of his partners were thinking of developing a magazine for children, and they wrote to Dodge to ask for her advice. She replied: “The child’s magazine, needs to be stronger, truer, bolder, more uncompromising than the [adult’s]. … Let there be no sermonizing either, no wearisome spinning out of facts, no rattling of the dry bones of history. A child’s magazine is its pleasure ground.”
They were impressed enough by her response that they asked her to edit the children’s magazine, which became known as St. Nicholas. Dodge chose the name, because she said: “Is he not the boys’ and girls’ own Saint, the especial friend of young Americans? That he is. … And, what is more, isn’t he the kindest, best, and jolliest old dear that ever was known? Certainly again.”
St. Nicholas became one of the most successful children’s publications of all time. It included work by writers such as Louisa May Alcott, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, Alfred Tennyson, Rudyard Kipling, and Mark Twain. The magazine also encouraged young people to submit stories and poems for publication. Among the writers who first published their work in St. Nicholas were Ring Lardner, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Eudora Welty, Edmund Wilson, and F. Scott Fitzgerald.

mary-dodgeMARY MAPES DODGE YOU ROCK!

I invite you to share a story about an inspiring woman in the comments section. Just leave us a link to your post. We can never read too many stories about inspiring women. 

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The above information is from an article that was posted at The Writer’s Almanac.

FEMINIST FRIDAY

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When I started writing this weekly feature, it was my intention that I would not only feature famous women, but forgotten women, and also the everyday hero women.

My young friend Matt Koehling wrote the following story on his blog, Something In The Wudder, www.somethinginthewudder.com, about his much loved grandmother.  This is a perfect example of an everyday woman living a hero’s life.

What follows is a enchanting Valentine from a grandson to a grandmother.  Every grandmother everywhere hopes to be loved this much.valentine_heart_vector_graphic_557137

98 Degrees: Words of Wisdom & Tales of Tenacity From My 98-Year-Old Nana

Ann Rhoads, better known as Mom to her six children, or Nana to her eleven grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren, turned 98 on December 8th.
This puts her in a very special “one percent” club, among the world’s citizens.
It places her just twenty-two months shy of the Century Club.

It brings her about twenty-two years short of a hand-shake/hug-and-kiss agreement that she entered into with her eldest grandson, yours truly. I continually remind her of our deal, which has her remaining with us in physical form until age 120. At that point, as I tell her, we can sit back down at the table to re-negotiate, based upon her quality of life at that time.

One of the more recent occasions I reiterated this agreement was the day after her birthday, which was spent at a local South Jersey rehabilitation center, following a spell earlier in the month at the hospital with bronchial pneumonia, where she gamely once again fought off Father Time. During this visit, Nana sprung some preliminary negotiations of her own on me. The least nagging or judgmental person I’ve been blessed to have met in this world yet, inserted a new clause of her own. The pitch? If she holds up her end of the bargain, her secretly-favorite grandchild (see what I did there cuzzes?) must give up smoking on 12/8/28 if he hasn’t previously done so.

I took the deal on the spot.
My Aunt Ellen and I wheeled her out of the rehab center the next day, while Nana rode shotgun as I drove us home.
Since then, Nana has been rehabbing and improving at a gradual pace, because nothing moves too fast when you’re 98, besides perhaps the grains of sand through time’s hour glass.
It takes a village to raise a child, as the famous phrase goes.
But it also takes a lot of love, along with the help of a bevy of family, friends, physical therapists and physicians, to keep a near-centenarian running. Or walking. Or in this case, walking with the assistance of a walker, on occasion, along with requiring a designated “lifter” for the big ups-and-downs. While Nana certainly appreciates any displays of love, which in my humble opinion despite all our combined best efforts still doesn’t quite equate to the incredible amount of it she doles out, I know that a fate my grandmother likely fears worse than dying is being a “burden” on the family she has been the long-standing matriarch of, along with the receivers and beneficiaries of so much of the love she’s given.
It might occasionally take one of these folks, particularly when it’s one of her beloved grandchildren, to remind her to snap out of it with any talk of that burden nonsense. It’s also usually while in the presence of one of them, her own personal cheering section, that Nana sets a higher bar in her physical therapy sessions of doing leg exercises, or walker exercises around the apartment.
Age, along with two artificial hips, have rendered Nana’s mobility a perpetual work in progress.
Macular degeneration, has rendered Nana’s eyesight in a perpetual state of decline.
But she still has a love of life, a fighting spirit, and the considerable faculties of her sharp mind.
It’s a mind with a level of recall, that can usually call up the names of the seemingly impossible amount of someone’s, that she’s known at some point over the course of her incredibly long life.
Nana has long had a tendency to speak fast while mumbling occasionally, as well as being prone to diversions or conversational off-roads, at times taking a circuitous route to the end of a story.
These are two traits that some who know me would say I’ve inherited, either by nature, nurture, or some combination of both. At 98, this might mean her companion will have to sometimes lean in a bit closer, to figure out what she’s saying, or where she’s going, but for those of us skilled in the practice of absorbing what Nana gives, her words consider to disperse jewels and bear fruit. I’ve learned a lot from her, just in the six months since returning from Los Angeles to the town where she raised her family and her middle daughter raised mine.
The bottom line, as we try to tell my grandmother all the time, is that we like having her around. She’s enough of a people-person to pick up on when would truly be the appropriate time to leave the party. But for now, Nana’s got more work left to do. Like getting back into her optimal 98 shape following this recent setback, getting her name announced by Al Roker on the ‘Today’ show once she reaches 100, or just making sure two decades later, that her eldest grandson has indeed smoked his last Newport 100.
“If you are a good reader. Your imagination goes along with you.”-Nana, 2017

Ann Hannigan, eventually to be known as Ann Rhoads, then Mom and now Nana, was born on a farm in Olean, New York, just outside of Buffalo. It is a North Eastern, often cold part of the United States, particularly in the winter. The above picture is the only known photo she has from the early years of her life, raised on the family farm.
“Despite the winters, we always had apples and grew our own vegetables. One Sunday when the snow was too high to get the car out, we took a sled to church, pulled by a horse.”
Nana was once the baby of the bunch. The two oldest were her two sisters, the oldest Betty, followed by Helen. After that came her brother Bud, the closest to her in age. He was her idol, as well as best friend, growing up.

“Bud always went to bat for me, he taught me how to dance when we were teenagers. He was very patient, I was a pretty good follower as a dancer, Bud was more the showman. He played the clarinet too, he could play “Sweetie Sue” very well at the dances. But if a football game started outside, he would miss practice.  Bud was always polite and nice at home, but then he would sneak out the side window to go out. I never told on him. We were buddies.”

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